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Dental Abscess: Cause, Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention | Periapical abscess | Periodontal abscess

Dental abscess or tooth abscess, is a buildup of pus that forms inside the teeth or gums.
The abscess typically comes from a bacterial infection

There are three types of dental abscess:
1) Gingival abscess: The abscess is only in the gum tissue and does not affect the tooth or the periodontal ligament.
2) Periodontal abscess: This abscess starts in the supporting bone tissue structures of the teeth.
3) Periapical abscess: this abscess commences in the soft pulp of the tooth.

Periapical abscess
Bacteria enter the tooth through tiny holes caused by tooth decay, or caries, that form in the hard outer layer of the tooth. Caries eventually break down the softer layer of tissue under the enamel, called dentine. If the decay continues, the hole will eventually penetrate the soft inner pulp of the tooth and become infected.
This is known as pulpitis. As the pulpitis progresses, the bacteria make their way to the bone that surrounds and supports the tooth, called the alveolar bone, and a periapical abscess is formed.

Periodontal abscess
When bacteria which are present in plaque infect the gums, the patient has periodontitis. The gums become inflamed, which can make the tissue surrounding the root of the tooth separate from the base of the tooth.
A periodontal pocket, a tiny gap, is formed when the periodontal ligament separates from the root. The pocket gets dirty easily and is very hard to keep clean. As bacteria build up in the periodontal pocket, a periodontal abscess is formed.

1.) pain in the affected area when biting or when touching the affected area. The pain usually starts suddenly and becomes more intense over the following hours or days. In some cases, the pain may radiate to the ear, jawbone, and neck.
2.) sensitivity to cold or hot food and liquids
3.) foul taste in the mouth
4.) fever
5.) difficulties opening the mouth
6.) swallowing difficulties
7.) insomnia

Treating a periapical abscess: Root canal treatment will be used to remove the abscess. A drill is used to bore a hole into the dead tooth so that the pus can come out. Any damaged tissue will be removed from the pulp. A root filling is then inserted into the space to prevent subsequent infections.
Treating a periodontal abscess: The abscess will be drained and the periodontal pocket cleaned. The surfaces of the root of the tooth will then be smoothed out by scaling and planing below the gum line.
Medication: Painkiller & Antibiotic

Use fluoridated drinking water.
Brush your teeth at least twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste.
Use dental floss or an interdental cleaner to clean between your teeth on a daily basis.
Replace your toothbrush every three or four months, or whenever the bristles are frayed.
Eat healthy food, limiting sugary items and between-meal snacks.
Visit your dentist for regular checkups and professional cleanings.
Consider using an antiseptic or a fluoride mouth rinse to add an extra layer of protection against tooth decay.

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